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当前位置:首页 > 杂志 > 2016年8月杂志——户外标识在城市发展中的作用

2016年8月杂志——户外标识在城市发展中的作用

2016-08-26

The last 10 years have seen enormous changes in the acceptance of commercial and institutional landmark signs, both static and digital, as well as urban and community wayfinding systems. Today, signs are widely viewed as a key driver of brand strategies for cities, retailers and other parties. The industry has also benefited from improved legibility, high-quality materials, modern lighting and integration into buildings and landscapes.
在过去十年中,标识以为众多的商业机构,带来了里程碑式意义以及影响,毅然发生了巨大的变革。无论是静态还是数码的,也包括城市和社区标识导视系统。而现如今,标识被广泛视为一个城市、零售商或是各方品牌战略的关键驱动因素。该行业也受益于可读性的增强、高质量的材料、现代照明应用,并且逐渐融入到了建筑和景观中。

Unfortunately, the effectiveness of the sign industry's best practices as tools for community and business improvement has been obscured somewhat by a deficit of research and education in the field. Evidence-based design methodologies have been out of reach for most organizations and sign builders.
不幸的是,标识的有效性从未被重视过,社区或是零售商把它作为改善和发展的工具,但在某种程度上,实际在模糊该领域的研究和知识的普及。根据已经制定好的标准为基础的设计,已经难以满足大多数标识制作商的发展需求。

With that in mind, new research undertaken on behalf of the International Sign Association (ISA) and the Signage Foundation—a non-profit organization dedicated to expanding knowledge of the purposes of on-premise signage—has explored the various ways signs enhance cities' downtown areas, helping to increase tourism, development and consumer spending. By reviewing the importance of different attributes of exterior landmark signs, this research study has compared the effectiveness of different approaches to create a clearer picture of how signs play an important role in their communities.
鉴于这一点,代表国际标识协会(ISA)标识基金会(致力于扩大普及标识知识的非盈利性组织),一项新的研究已经在增强城市市区功能、帮助提高旅游业、以及国家发展和消费者支出等方面探索各种标识的发展趋势。通过回顾各种标识不同属性的重要性,介此研究并创建各种图案以及不同形式的标识发展战略规划。

Surveying the landscape
关于环境标识的调查研究

Through online volunteer research sites, 80 participants between the ages of 21 and 60 were recruited for the study in three cities, comprising 30 in Chicago, Ill., 30 in New York, N.Y., and 20 in Philadelphia, Penn. Of this overall group, 55 per cent of participants were female, 40 per cent were minorities and the average age was 41, roughly correlating with both urban and suburban demographics. They were paid an honorarium of $40 U.S. for four hours of their time.
With a survey format, the report asked the participants to rank 13 attributes—such as legibility and architectural integration—of suburban and urban sign design approaches showcased in a slideshow. These were specific to each city, including a trolley tour of Chicago landmark signs, a walking tour of digital signs along a key retail corridor in New York and an examination of wayfinding programs and the impact of both commercial and institutional landmark signs in Philadelphia.
通过志愿者调查网站,有80名参与者,来自三座城市,年龄介于21岁和60岁之间,参与了此次调查,其中芝加哥有30人,纽约有30人,费城有20人。整个群组参与者的55%为女性,40%为少数民族,平均年龄为41岁,这些限定的条件都是基于城市和郊区的人口比例。他们每人将获得4小时40美元的酬金。根据调查内容,让参与者列出13种属性——例如:易读性、建筑一体化的城市标识导视系统,并用幻灯片的方式展示出来。这些都是特定于每个城市,包括芝加哥电车之旅标识,纽约一条著名的商业步行街数码标识,费城商业机构导视标识系统。

The research process began in March 2014 and most major studies were carried out over the following summer. The report was compiled in late 2014 and released in 2015.
这项研究开始于2014年3月,最主要的研究过程是在接下来的夏天进行的。这份报告是在2014年末和2015年发布的。

Landmark signs
地标性标识

The study of landmark signs has been popular for more than 40 years. The release in 1972 of Learning From Las Vegas by Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown and Steven Izenour launched the high-level academic study of signs, which culminated in 2012 withSigns, Streets and Storefronts by Martin Treu, an in-depth review of the history of urban signs.
关于地标性标识的研究已经进行了40多年。1972年发表的高级标识学术研究——向拉斯维加斯学习,由罗伯特·文丘里,丹尼斯·斯科特·布朗和史蒂文·埃兹尔完成,该研究项目和马丁·特雷乌发表的深入回顾城市标识历史——标识、街道和店面,在2012年一同达到顶峰。

In recent years, the public's expectations of and attitudes toward high-quality landmark signs have changed substantially. On-premise signs are playing a central role in defining a community's overall identity, whether they represent commercial brands or traditional institutions like libraries or municipal buildings.
近年来,公众对高品质标识的期望和态度发生了很大的转变。在一个社区整体的环境中,标识系统发挥其重要的核心作用,无论是代表商业品牌还是事业机构,譬如:图书馆或市政大楼。

The effectiveness of these signs, however, has mainly been studied in a proprietary manner by companies seeking a competitive edge through higher visibility and brand recognition. The Signage Foundation's study endeavoured to‘open up’this field by studying the most effective strategies in sign design for a variety of companies and institutions based on the conditions around them, including restrictive sign codes, corporate branding philosophies and new technologies.
这些标识的有效性,主要是公司以专有的方式,通过更高的知名度和品牌认知度来寻求竞争优势。标识基金会试图“开放”这个领域,根据周围环境选择各种各样的公司和机构,在标识设计方面研究最有效的策略,包括限制性标识法、企业品牌推广理念和新技术。

Weighted attributes were used as the basis for the analysis in Chicago. The top four, responsible for more than 42 per cent of the total weighted average, were:
1.Legible—11.37 out of 13; 12 per cent of weight score.
2.Informational—10.08 out of 13; 11 per cent of weight score.
3.High-quality—8.83 out of 13; 10 per cent of weight score.
4.Enjoyable to view—8.29 out of 13; nine per cent of weight score.
Lower down the list were other attributes like‘well-designed,’‘memorable,’‘appropriately scaled,’‘exciting’and‘unique.’
加权属性被用来作为分析的基础。在芝加哥,前四项,负责超过42%的总加权平均,分别为:
1. 易读性——11.37/13;加权分数的12%。
2. 信息性——10.08/13;加权分数的11%。
3. 高品质——8.83/13;加权分数的10%。
4. 观看愉悦性——8.29/13;加权分数的9%。
以及表单中一些精心设计的其它属性,例如‘精心设计的”,“令人难忘的”适度比例,“令人兴奋的,和“独特的”。

Based on the weighted averages, the following strategic approaches were analyzed:
1.Integrated landmark design—Where the brand identity is integrated into all aspects of the architecture, with the addition of a smaller-scale pylon sign.
2.Architectural integration—Where the brand identity and all sign elements are integrated into the architecture, without additional free-standing signs.
3.Large-format print integration—Where printed building and window graphics are the main vehicle for visual communications at the given location.
4.Pylon signs—Where a pylon or other large landmark sign is the key commercial communication approach, with only minor architectural signs.
基于加权平均数,对以下战略方式进行了分析:
1. 综合性标识设计——品牌标识集成到建筑的全方位,与添加一个较小规模碑塔标识。
2. 标识建筑一体化——品牌特征和所有标识元素都被整合在架构中,没有额外独立的标识。
3. 大幅喷印标识——在限定的位置喷印建筑和图形是视觉通信的主要媒介。
4. 碑塔标识——碑塔或其他重要标识是商业沟通传播媒介的关键,它们通常都是较小的建筑标识。

The first approach, integrated landmark design, earned the highest score at 4.04 out of five, with 57 per cent considered complementary to the community and 56 per cent ranked important to the quality of the community. The second, architectural integration, scored 3.98 out of five, with 50 per cent complementing the community and 50 per cent important to the quality of the community.
第一种方式,综合性标识设计,赢得了最高分数4.04分,满分5分,其中57%的人认为与社区互补,56%的人认为对社区品质很重要。第二种方式,标识建筑一体化, 获得3.98分,其中50%的人认为与社区互补,50%的人认为对社区品质很重要。

Large-format print integration proved less popular, scoring 3.62 out of five, with only 25 per cent complementing the community and 25 per cent important to the quality of the community. Finally, pylon signs scored 3.69 out of five, with 44 per cent complementing the community and 33 per cent important to the quality of the community. Tall pylons scored better than low pylons.
大幅喷印集成性就不那么受欢迎了,获得3.62分,只有25%的人认为与社区互补,25%的人认为对社区品质很重要。最后,碑塔标识获得3.69分,44%的人认为与社区互补,33%的人认为对社区品质很重要。高式碑塔标识比低式碑塔标识更受欢迎。

Three lighting approaches—internal, external and channel letter—were also analyzed. Internally illuminated channel letters received the highest score at 4.56, but this acceptance was downtown-centric; in the suburbs, there was no significant difference in attitudes toward internal versus external illumination.
对三种照明方式——内部的、外部的和槽型发光字也进行了分析。内部照明槽型发光字获得了最高分4.56分,但这是市中心比较偏爱的;在郊区,内部和外部照明是没有显著差异的。

It was clear from the study that a great deal of weight is placed on integrated design concepts that combine signs, graphics and architecture. This trend has also led to more urban signs incorporating traditionally architectural materials like stone and wood, as well as the use of architecture-dependent applications like awnings, screens and window graphics.
从这项研究中明显可以看出,结合符号,图形和建筑,综合设计概念方面占比较大。这种趋势也导致了更多的城市标识结合传统建筑材料,像石头和木材,以及结构相关的应用,如遮阳棚、屏幕和窗口图形。

At the same time, signs that suffered problems with regard to legibility, clutter and/or clarity were given outsized negative weight in the survey, even when efforts were made to integrate them into architecture. In other words, legible, informational signs outweigh all other influences.
换句话说,标识的清晰度、信息化比其它属性都重要。在调查中发现,标识如果已经产生过低识别度和清晰度的问题,即使是努力把它们融入建筑中,带来的也只会是负作用。

Finally, downtown signs played the most major role within their landscape, with positive attitudes toward them surpassing even those expressed toward traditional buildings. Compared to the suburbs, there was a downtown focus on the most flamboyant, exciting designs, with a broad mix of materials and displays, from projected signs to banners.
最后,市区标识在景观中用积极地态度扮演了最重要的角色,甚至超过了那些表达对传统建筑的态度。与郊区相比较,市区专注于最亮丽、振奋人心的设计,从标识到横幅都拥有广泛的材料组合和展示。

Digital signs
数字标识

Digital signage has become part of nearly all urban and suburban environments. A convergence of lower-priced technology, more open codes coupled with greater public acceptance has seen the medium expand to universities, health-care facilities, restaurants and other locations. Retailers, in particular, have advanced the use of digital signs as a foundation for promoting their products.
数字标识几乎已经成为所有城市和郊区环境的一部分。低成本的展示技术、更开放的信息量,加上更大公众接受度,见证了此媒介扩展到了大学、卫生保健设施、餐馆和其他地方。尤其是零售商,改进数字标识的应用,作为促进他们产品销量的首选工具。

One of the goals of the New York survey was to develop a set of ‘metrics’appropriate to the characteristics of digital signs. There has been surprisingly little research with regard to digital signage as an asset in support of urban landscapes. Again, most research so far has been proprietary and/or promoted by the industry itself. As a result, few‘best practices' have been developed for design.
纽约调查的目标之一,是开发一套适合数字标识应用的“标准”。很少有研究将数字标识作为一项技术来支持城市景观。大多数研究证实,数字标识仅为市场的需求或促进行业的发展而存在。很少有原创设计的产品。

The signs selected for the Signage Foundation survey were integrated into buildings and streetscapes, rather than installed for stand-alone messaging. Specifically, three strategic approaches were analyzed:
1.Architecturally integrated—Digital signage integrated into a building's architecture.
2.Information systems—Messaging systems providing important community information.
3.Pylon signs—Digital signs incorporated into pylon signs.
Information systems scored the highest at 3.99 out of five, while the other two approaches tied at 3.31 each. Overall, 77 per cent complemented the community and 35 per cent were considered important to the quality of the community.
基于标识基金会研究的标识选择,被整合到了建筑和街景中,而不是安装独立的信息标识。具体而言,以下针对三种战略方式进行了分析:
1.建筑一体化——把数字标识集成到建筑结构中。
2.信息化系统——提供社区重要的信息传递系统。
3.碑塔标识——把数字标识整合到精神保垒中。
信息系统获得分最高3.99分,而其他两种方式每种只得了3.31分。总的来说,77%的人认为与社区互补,25%的人认为对社区品质最重要。   

There were also three media approaches in terms of video content:
1.Scrolling information—Signs with simple scrolling or changing information, facilitated by rolling, flashing or fading transitions.
2.Scrolling/animated graphics—Signs that combine scrolling information on-screen with graphics and simple animation.
3.Full media—Signs with fully developed media content, including animation integrated into the entire presentation.
The basic scrolling information signs scored 2.76 out of five, topped by scrolling/animated graphics at 3.65 and full media at 3.57.
还有三种媒介方式的视频内容:
1.滚动信息——通过滚动、闪烁或渐变褪色的方式,做出简单滚动或变换信息标识。
2.滚动或动画图像——结合屏幕上图像和简单动画的滚动标识。
3.全媒体——充分发达的媒体内容,包括融合在整个展示中的动画。
基本滚动信息标识获得2.76分,滚动或动画图像得3.65分,全媒体得3.57分。

In the New York study, it was clear participants had grown accustomed to digital signs in their environment, but also took a highly critical view of them, with immediate negative reactions to any issues in legibility, quality or messaging. Compared to static signs, the standards rose substantially, with significant variability between low and high scores. In other words, the public responds highly positively to good digital signage and highly negatively to bad digital signage.The most positive responses were to signs that provided important information in addition to advertising. Full media signs with a clear flow of content earned the highest scores.
在纽约研究中,参与者很明显已经习惯于他们周围环境中的数字标识,随之也有很多批判的观点,譬如标识的易读性、品质或信息传递等方面都产生了消极的反应。相比静态标识,数字标识的得分大幅上涨。换句话说,公众对良好的数码标识非常肯定,而对不良数码标识持否定态度。对标识最肯定的回应,除了广告之外就是提供重要信息。全媒体标识以清晰流畅的内容赢得了最高分数。

Digital signs integrated into larger fixtures or landmark signs also drew a positive response, particularly in the context of well-designed complementary sign packages. With design playing such a crucial role in the success of digital signage, the top-scoring examples tended to focus on providing clear, legible content on screens integrated into architecture.
将数字标识嵌入到建筑中或者更大的户外广告牌中,也得到了积极的响应,尤其是在漂亮设计的标识背景下。在数字标识的成功方面,设计扮演着重要的角色,得分最高的案例都是专注于提供清晰、易读的内容在屏幕上。

Wayfinding and identity signs
导视系统标识

Wayfinding and identify signs have become essential components of major cities, towns and regions for both drivers and pedestrians. While they have proven popular for local branding, making spaces more livable and promoting tourism, however, there are still questions about their importance and worthiness as an investment today, particularly in light of mobile navigation technologies. So, the goal of the Philadelphia survey was to measure the relative importance of wayfinding in comparison to other streetscape and landmark investments.
标识寻路系统对于司机和行人来说,已经成为主要城市、城镇和地区的重要组成部分。它们使空间更加宜居,也促进了旅游业的发展,然而,作为一项投资的重要性和价值,它们仍然存在一些问题,尤其是在移动导航技术方面。因此,费城研究的目的是衡量寻路系统与街景标识或其它重要投资哪个更具价值性。

There has been very little research in the past into the effectiveness of wayfinding programs, particularly in relation to their cost. It is important to focus on wayfinding as one of a number of infrastructural investments that support an urban brand, including street lighting. A wayfinding project must begin with the premise that cities and towns are looking for the most effective investments to enhance their identities.
过去很少有研究寻路系统项目的,特别是关系到成本问题。为促进公众场所、商业设施的功能发挥更大作用,包括街道照明在内的基础设施投资,寻路系统都显得尤为重要。寻路系统必须在城市和城镇寻找最有效的投资来强化它们的特性。

The Philadelphia survey built on earlier, ground-breaking research developed by Applied Information Group for Vancouver and London, England, which studied how an effective wayfinding system can lead to greater commerce by enhancing a city's walkability and, thus, the public's access to the urban environment. Augmenting that analysis, the Signage Foundation's study compared wayfinding to building lighting, street lighting, landmarks, public art, murals and interpretive signs. It also analyzed several wayfinding approaches, including pedestrian, vehicular, gateway and mobile applications.
费城在早期的开创性研究时,是由温哥华和英国伦敦应用信息集团开发的,研究如何有效的寻路系统可以带来更大的商业价值,提升城市的步行,从而增加公众对城市的访问。对调查进行深度分析后,标识基金会研究比较了寻路系统、建筑照明、道路照明、标志性建筑、公共艺术、壁画和标识牌。它还分析了几种寻路方式,包括行人、车辆、通道和移动应用设备。

Lighting, public art and murals scored high, at 4.04 to 4.05 out of five, closely followed by wayfinding signs (3.95), landmarks (3.77) and interpretive signs (3.72). Gateway identity signs scored 4.12, followed by vehicular wayfinding (3.91), pedestrian wayfinding (3.83) and mobile applications (3.82). Interestingly, most of the survey participants had downloaded a city or transit map onto their mobile phones, but only used resources they were very familiar with, like Google Maps.
照明、公共艺术、壁画获得高分4.04分,紧随其后的是寻路系统标识3.95分,地标3.77分,标识牌3.72分。通道标识获得4.12分,其次是车辆寻路3.91分,行人寻路3.83分,移动应用设备3.82分。有趣的是,大多数调查参与者下载城市或交通地图到手机上,但是他们只使用自己很熟悉的资源,比如谷歌地图。

The survey showed attitudes toward urban infrastructure projects are very positive. Indeed, the biggest issue that came out from the focus group at the end of testing was the need for many wayfinding sign design features found in larger cities to be extended to smaller cities, towns and neighbourhoods.
调查显示,公众对于城市基础设施改善的态度是非常积极的。事实上,更多的是对许多寻路系统标识的需求,从较大城市扩展到了较小的城市、城镇和社区。

Directional signs, maps and kiosks were all seen as extremely important investments, particularly when integrated into street furniture like bus shelters and benches, while gateway signs were seen as crucial to success at the vehicular level. Murals and public art were seen as‘creative landmarks’for a strong community identity and as an important complement to wayfinding signs.The more negative responses were to approaches that would add clutter to the environment, including the extensive use of banners or too many small signs as key elements. Fewer but higher-quality elements were perceived as more successful in reinforcing the urban identity.
导视标识、城市地图和中心作标都被视为极其重要的投资,尤其是融入到街道设施中,例如公交候车亭和长椅,而通道标识则是保证城市车辆顺利通行的关键。壁画和公共艺术被视为社区认同和寻路标识重要补充的“创意地标”,作为强大的社会特性和寻路系统的重要组成部分。广泛使用横幅和太多的小标识越来越少。而高质量的元素成功地增强了城市特性。

What makes signs successful
标识走向成功的必然性

The Signage Foundation's new research emphasizes how design issues can be judged objectively, with general consensus among a public population, by asking survey participants to rank design attributes like legibility (which involves contrast levels, typography, letter size and the use of negative space), clarity of information, reduction of clutter and architectural integration before comparing real-world signage approaches. Another major finding was there is no difference to the public between a sign and a building, in terms of how well-accepted they are as parts of the urban landscape.
标识基金会的一项新研究强调,如何让公众普遍客观地评判设计问题,通过询问参与者对设计属性的排列,例如易读性(包括水平对比、排版、字体大小和空间利用率),信息清晰化,减少混乱和建筑一体化。另一种调查结果是作为城市景观的一部分,公共标识和建筑之间完美融合。

The next question is whether or not a sign code can cover all of these issues properly. People respond positively to good design in commercial signage, which should give planners some ammunition in the sign bylaw arena. There are design truths that are not just subjective.
下一个问题是,一个标识是否可以恰当地涵盖所有问题。人们积极响影商业标识设计好后,应该给规划者在签署章程上多一些支持。有设计理念,不仅仅是主观的。

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