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当前位置:首页 > 杂志 > 2017年11月杂志——如何为宽幅打印工作设立一个安全的环境

2017年11月杂志——如何为宽幅打印工作设立一个安全的环境

2018-03-24

Successful business owners, including those in the wide-format printing industry, know safety is a key component in creating a thriving work environment. By keeping their employees healthy, business owners can save money, improve morale and foster a more efficient workplace.

一个成功的标识制造商一定了解,安全工作环境是创造生产价值的关键所在一个安全工作环境能保证员工的身体健康,有效地节省额外的支出提高工作效率。

Of course, safety is a matter not just of good business practices, but also of laws and regulations, of which there are a variety throughout Canada that impose certain standards on all work facilities. Keeping track of these rules can become overwhelming.

当然,安全不仅仅是一个好的商业惯例,而且也涉及到法律法规,比如,在加拿大各地,有各种各样的规范,对所有工作设施都施加了一定的标准。

Fortunately, there are ample resources available to help wide-format printing businesses navigate health and safety issues.

为了履行责任,各企业非常重视解决这一问题。幸运的是,政府有足够的资源可以帮助标识制造商解决不安全隐患。

From general to specific

从一般到具体问题针对性解决


Safety standards can cover quite a few areas. Some are more general, like criteria for facility conditions, how to deal with violence and harassment in the workplace or emergency response plans. Among the most common workplace injuries are slips, falls and overexertion.

关于一个工作环境的安全标准,是涵盖很多方面的。一些比较普遍的,包括设施条件的标准、如何处理工作场所的意外与干扰的应急计划等,其中,最常见的问题是意外滑倒、跌倒或过度疲劳。

In wide-format printing, there are also a number of industry-specific hazards that need to be dealt with every day. Many print service providers (PSPs) work with chemicals that may be considered dangerous, for example, so steps need to be taken to mitigate the associated risks, such as labelling containers or wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). Employees may also need to frequently operate equipment that would be dangerous if the appropriate machine guards were not in place.

在宽幅打印工作中,会有一些特殊危害的事情需要每天进行处理。许多打印服务商会使用一些较危险的化学品,他们需要采取一定的措施来减轻可能出现的风险,例如,他们会贴上标签或佩戴好个人防护装备。除此之外,员工也需要经常操作设备,如果相应的机身防护装置不在位,那将是比较危险的。

The cost of violations

违规造成的成本


Following all of the various regulations that can affect the printing industry is a challenging task. For small businesses that do not have enough time or resources to keep up-to-date in implementing them, the task can even seem impossible.

遵循标识行业的所有规定是一项具有挑战性的任务。对于一些没有足够经验和资源来实施的小型企业来说,这个任务相当艰巨。

 

It is essential not to let safety concerns fall to the wayside, however, or there could be significant costs. When safety violations are identified and investigated, businesses are typically fined, either by their provincial safety agency or by the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS) at the federal level. In the most serious cases, these fines can range from approximately $10,000 to $300,000 or even greater.

在这样的情况下,小型企业不能将安全问题放置一边,因为这样反而会付出更大的代价。一旦被调查,确认为安全违规时,企业通常会被省级安全机构或加拿大健康安全中心罚款。严重的话,罚款的数额将在10,000美元到30万美元之间,甚至会更多。

Health and safety measures should not only be motivated by a fear of financial punishment. As mentioned earlier, violations can compromise the operational efficiency of a business. Further, employees thrive in environments where they feel safe. In part, this is because they actively appreciate when they feel their company cares about them.

工作场合的安全违规不仅仅涉及罚款,还会损害企业的运营效率,因为员工只有在能让他们感到安全的环境中才能成长,发挥工作的激情和专注力。也可以说,为员工提供一个好的工作环境,会让他们觉得公司是在关心他们,从而使他们会更情愿地投入和付出。

In businesses where there have been many injuries and illnesses, not only do the affected employees often miss work while they are recovering, but employee morale also tends
to become much lower, which in turn results in even lower productivity. Keeping a business safe and up to standards, on the other hand, will naturally lead to improvements in productivity and overall employee happiness.

一个较差的工作环境对员工的工作非常有影响,也许他们会经常犯些错误,以至于降低心情和积极性,从而导致生产力下降。反之,好的工作环境能保证业务的安全开展,直到达标,自然会提高生产力和员工的总体幸福。

 

Getting off to a good start

怎样实施


Many business owners want to achieve higher safety standards in their workplaces, but simply do not know where to start. With that issue in mind, Workplace Safety North (WSN) and the Specialty Graphic Imaging Association (SGIA) teamed up this spring to help Ontario’s printing community. The two organizations hosted a half-day conference to bring professionals from across the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) together to discuss important regulatory and safety issues.

许多标识制造商都希望在工作场所实现更高的安全标准,但他们却不知道从哪里开始入手。 考虑到这个问题,WSN和SGIA协会从今年开始合作,整顿安大略省的整个标识行业。首先,这两个组织举行了为期半天的商讨会议,将来自多伦多地区的标识领域的专业人士聚集在一起,讨论有关监管和安全问题。

WSN is a non-profit organization funded through the Ontario Ministry of Labour’s (MOL’s) Workplace Safety & Insurance Board (WSIB). It specializes in providing health and safety training and resources for businesses across a variety of resource-based business sectors, mainly in Northern Ontario, including printing. Its services include expert advice and information, classroom and online training programs, on-site consultations, health and safety audits, industrial hygiene testing and assistance with problem-solving. By way of example, it provides training for working at heights, as is applicable to sign and graphic installation workers.

WSN是一个非营利性组织,他是通过安大略省劳工部和保险委员会所资助,专门为各种基于资源的商业部门(主要是北安大略省打印领域)或企业提供资源和安全培训的,包括专家咨询、在线培训、现场咨询、健康和安全审核、工业卫生测试等,培训适用于所有标识和图形安装人员。

SGIA, meanwhile, is a trade association representing both screenprinting and digital printing communities around the world. Among its services for members is access
to informational resources that are geared specifically toward the needs of the printing industry, including those relating to health and safety in the workplace.

另外一个组织SGIA,是代表世界各地丝网印刷和数字打印的行业协会。其服务包括针对打印领域的需求,提供信息和资源。

“Workers are an integral part of any business and keeping them safe should always be a top priority,” says Marci Kinter, SGIA’s vice-president (VP) of government and business information. “That’s why we offer resources to help our members navigate the complicated world of safety regulations and learn how to implement their own programs.”

SGIA的副总裁Marci Kinter说:“员工是任何企业的重要组成部分,要想保持工作安全进行,应始终完善好工作环境的设施设备,这就是为什么我们提供资源,来帮助这些企业履行安全规则,并实施建立一个安全健康的工作环境。”

The association has many members in the GTA, so it chose to work with WSN to provide more help to those businesses with regard to safety regulations.

因为协会在GTA有很多成员,所以选择与WSN合作,为这些企业提供更多的帮助。

 

On the safety agenda

关于安全议程


SGIA and WSN’s workplace safety conference, sponsored by ND Graphics, was held on June 7 at the Centre for Health & Safety Innovation (CHSI) 
in Mississauga, Ont. The agenda featured a breadth of speakers and topics.Labelling chemicals Douglas Groff, director of health, safety and environment for Data Communications Management, a PSP and direct marketing company headquartered in Brampton, Ont., discussed labelling requirements for hazardous chemicals, including printing inks.

SGIA和WSN协会举办的商讨会议由ND Graphics主办,于6月7日在安大略省密西沙加举行。ND Graphics总部设在安大略省布兰普顿,主要负责处理危险化学品,包括油墨打印。

The requirements for Canada’s national Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) were updated in 2015 to bring them into synchronization with other regulations around the world, by integrating them with the Globally Harmonized System (GHS), which is supported by the World Health Organization (WHO). The implementation of the Canadian updates began in July 2016 and many provinces are still transitioning their own requirements accordingly.

早在2015年,加拿大所有工作场所的信息系统就被要求更新,这项更新实施始于2016年7月,许多省份也相应地转移了自己的要求。

Groff’s presentation included a review of the main differences between the original version of WHMIS from 1988 and the updates from 2015, including revised pictograms, different hazard classifications and new components of Safety Data Sheets (SDSs), which have replaced the earlier Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs). PSPs must comply with these labelling requirements for all inks stored and used in their facilities by the deadline of December 2018.

Groff的演讲稿包括对1988年WHMIS原版和2015年更新版本的审查条例,包括修订的象形图、不同的危险品分类和安全数据表的新组件,这些已经取代了之前的“材料安全数据表”(化学品安全技术说明书)。

“People in the industry need to understand the pictograms for hazard classes like acute toxicity and signal words like ‘danger’ and ‘warning,’” he said. “The way chemical hazards are classified has changed.”

他说:“业内人士需要了解危险类别的象形图,如急性毒性信号词。”

 

Machine guarding, lockouts and tagouts

防护和账户锁定


As mentioned, PSPs also face hazards relating to the machinery they use. It is important to implement machine guarding to prevent severe accidents for operators.

如上所述,很多表示制造商都面临着有关他们使用机械的危险。对机器进行防护,以防止操作员发生严重事故是相当重要的。

‘Lockout-tagout’ is a safety procedure that involves shutting off such machines and locking down power sources before performing any maintenance on them. The purpose is to prevent anyone else from accidentally starting up the machine, which could in turn harm the maintenance worker who is in direct contact with it.

“锁定标记”是一种安全程序,能够在进行设备维护之前,自动关闭这些机器并锁定电源,目的是防止任何人意外地启动机器,导致直接接触设备的维修人员造成伤害。

Many newer machines for the wide-format printing industry come with ‘guard’ features built in. With older equipment that is not up to current regulatory standards, on the other hand, employers must ensure guards are added.

应用在宽幅打印的许多新机器都具有内置的“防护”功能,对于不符合现行监管标准的旧设备,雇主需要及时处理掉

Wendy Nadan, an environment, health and safety (EHS) consultant based in Kitchener, Ont., discussed the importance of lockout procedures in preventing workplace injuries. Her presentation featured an outline of employers’ responsibilities, which include not only making sure the right equipment is installed, but also training employees in the proper use of machinery and providing PPE for them. She reviewed different types of machine guards that are available and how to maintain them.

一位来自安大略省基奇纳,健康安全顾问Wendy Nadan发表了防止工作场所受伤害的重要性,她的演讲介绍了有关雇主应承担责任的纲要,包括确保正确的设备安装,不同类型机器的防护装置以及如何维护它们,针对员工进行培训,确保他们掌握如何正确使用机械,为员工提供个人防护装备等。

“Even if the guard came with the equipment, you still need to make sure it’s on and working,” she said. “If any moving part is not guarded and there’s an accident, you’re liable.”

她说:“我们需要随时确保机器正在工作,如果任何移动部分没有控制好,发生了意外,你就应承担责任。”

All operator stations must have emergency-stop (e-stop) switches. Any components added to them must have redundant circuits, as the system cannot rely on one wire to work. And operators may not disable or bypass safety switches, no matter how aggravating dealing with them may be.

所有操作员站必须会操作紧急停止开关,添加到其中的任何组件必须具有冗余电路,系统不能依靠一根电线长期工作,此外,运营商也不得禁用或绕过安全开关。

“There’s always a trade-off between safety and operability,” Nadan said. “Guards block both visual and physical access to prevent operators from coming into contact with points of danger. They need to be put back in place after maintenance.”

Nadan“安全与可操作性之间始终存在权衡,预防警报会涉及视觉和触觉感应系统,以防止运营商接触到危险点。

Operating her own business, Nadan Consulting, she continues to work with SGIA, having previous experience with the Photo Marketing Association International (PMA) and the Ontario Printing & Imaging Association (OPIA), both of which have been succeeded by the Imaging Alliance. Over that period, Nadan has seen printing equipment evolve, including the related safety precautions.

Nadan创立了一家咨询公司,继续与SGIA合作,凭借拥有国际摄影营销协会和安大略省印刷与成像协会以往的工作经验,这两家公司已经成功的联盟。在此期间,Nadan看到了打印设备的发展,包括相关的安全预防措施,以及安全环境对于一家标识制造商发展的影响。

“There are even ‘light curtains’ today that can sense the presence of objects entering a specified detection zone and stop the machine,” she said. “Manufacturers kno w they need to design guards to meet prevailing industry standards and offer adequate protection.”

她说:“现在有种光系统可以感觉物体进入指定的检测区域,会立马停止机器运作,制造商需要设计这种警报系统,以满足当前行业标准并提供足够的保护。”

 

Harassment and violence

骚扰和暴力


Don Suess, a health and safety specialist with WSN, spoke about workplace violence and harassment, including bullying and intimidation.

 WSN协会的健康安全专家Don Suess提出了有关工作场所遭受暴力、骚扰、欺凌和恐吓的话题

Ontario’s Occupational Health and Safety Amendment Act (Violence and Harassment in the Workplace), which came into force in June 2010, introduced new requirements for employers to report incidents and new rights for employees to refuse to work under certain negative circumstances. The act addresses both criminal offences like assault and provincial statutes like Ontario’s Human Rights Code and Workplace Safety & Insurance Act, which entitles employees to benefits for mental stress that is an acute reaction to a sudden, unexpected and traumatic event.

2010年6月生效的“职业健康与安全法”(也称工作场所的暴力和骚扰法)对雇主提出了新的要求,在某些消极情况下,员工有报告事件的权利,可以拒绝环境糟糕的工作。该法案还涉及诸如安大略省“人权法”和“职业安全与保险法案”等违法犯罪行为,这些法律有利于缓解雇员的精神压力,以及受到创伤性事件的急剧反应。

Suess encouraged employers to become familiar with the MOL’s website for further details.

Suess鼓励雇主熟悉MOL网站的内容,了解更多详情。

Workplace injury trends

工作场所的受情况


Tom Welton, an industrial director with WSN, presented a five-year analysis of workplace injuries based on statistical trends. He explained the WSIB categories printing, platemaking and binding as one ‘rate group’ for which it collects data over time.

WSN协会的工业总监Tom Welton根据统计数据,对工作场所伤害的情况进行了分析,他将收集的数据做了一个“概率组”。

Most injuries reported in Ontario’s printing sector have affected operators of presses and other machinery. The top concerns include sprained, strained and torn muscles, overexertion and spine and other back injuries.

他发现,在安大略省打印行业中,大多数因工作环境而受伤的事件,会严重影响到一个企业的形象和运营。这些受伤的类别包括扭伤、紧张性肌肉撕裂、过度疲劳和脊柱及其他背部的受伤。

The discussion also turned to the aging workforce. Labourers in the range of 45 to 54 years old are most likely to suffer these injuries on the job, followed by those aged 35 to 44 and 55 to 64.

讨论的另一个话题是工作环境对老龄化劳动力的影响。45至54岁的劳动者最有可能在工作中受伤,其次是35岁至44岁、55岁至64岁的人。

“As workers grow older, they face a higher risk of injury or illness in the workplace,” added Ola Sinelnikova, project leader with CBI Workplace Solutions, a health and safety service provider. “This is important to keep in mind as the median age of Canada’s labour force is more than 42 years old and continues to rise. Corporate health and wellness has become an economic imperative.”

健康和安全服务提供商CBI Workplace Solutions的项目负责人Ola Sinelnikova补充说:“随着工人年龄的增长,工作场所的环境对他们的伤害或疾病风险的影响会更为凸显,这一点很重要,因为加拿大劳动力的平均年龄超过42岁,并且还在持续上升。所以说,企业提供的健康理念和健康环境,已经成为了一种经济上的必需品。”

Small business challenges

小企业面临的挑战


Finally, Joanne Gordon, WSIB’s manager of small business health and safety programs, discussed incentives to help develop effective programs, manage risks and reduce injury and illness costs.

最后,WSIB健康和安全计划经理Joanne Gordon发表了建立安全工作环境的有效方案、管理风险,以及减少伤害的激励措施。

“Critical injuries and even fatalities are disproportionately represented among small businesses,” she said, “so we offer free awareness sessions for small business owners, with consultants providing legislative and certification updates and training.”

她表示:“与大型企业相比,在小型企业中,严重伤害甚至死亡人数的比例会高一些,所以我们更加注重为小企业主提供免费的法律和认识培训。”

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