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当前位置:首页 > 杂志 > 2017年10月杂志——宽幅打印:如何做到织物与油墨的完美配置

2017年10月杂志——宽幅打印:如何做到织物与油墨的完美配置

2017-11-27

Digital textile printing can be thought of as a system, combining printer technology, ink chemistry, fabric preparation, colour fixation and supportive software for colour management, to process interior décor applications and other wide-format specialty graphics. The American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC), for its part, has provided specialized insight into ink chemistry options for digital wide-format printing.

织物打印被认为是一种墨水与织物完美结合打印技术,也是一种处理内部装饰应用和其他宽幅专业图形色彩管理软件。近来,美国纺织化学家和染色师协会就数字宽幅打印的油墨选择提供了专门的配置方案

Ink chemistry relates to both dyes and pigments. Dyes are more luminous and colourfast, entering the interior of the textile fibres and achieving a chemical bond with them or becoming trapped within them. They entail more complex processing requirements than pigments.

油墨涉及染料和颜料,染料,它能使打印出来的图案的光亮度更为优越,其原理是当它进入纺织纤维的内部后,形成化学键被融合在其中,与颜料相比,它的加工要求更为复杂。

Also, the type of dye must be matched with the type of fibre. Acid dyes can be printed to nylon, silk, wool and Spandex. Reactive dyes are also compatible with silk, as well as cotton, linen, rayon and viscose. Disperse dyes can be printed to polyester and perhaps some nylon fabrics.

此外,染料的类型必须与织物的类型相匹配。酸性染料可以打印到尼龙、丝绸、羊毛和氨纶这些材料上。活性染料能与丝绸、棉、亚麻、人造丝和粘胶相兼容。分散染料可以打印到聚酯和一些尼龙织物上。

Acid and reactive dyes

性染料和活性染料

 

With well-developed chemistry for printing textiles, reactive and acid dyes are water-soluble, offer good jetting properties and support a broad gamut, with availability in up to eight colours.

用于打印在织物上的酸性染料具有水溶性,能提供良好的喷射性能,并支持广泛的色域,可用性达8种颜色。

Processing is complex. Pre-treatment involves scouring and bleaching the fabric and applying a coating that includes a thickener (similar to a ‘print paste’), along with an acid (for acid dye printing) or alkali (for reactive dye printing), as well as auxiliaries to promote level dyeing. These processes enhance print precision and colour bonding. Then, after printing, steaming is necessary to promote movement of the dyes into the fibres and enable chemical bonding. Finally, washing removes excess dyes and auxiliaries and improves colourfastness.

预处理包括洗涤和漂白织物,并施加包含增稠剂的涂层以及酸碱剂来促进染色,这些过程能增强打印的精度和色彩的粘合。在打印完之后,蒸汽帮助染料进入织物中,形成化学键。 最后,洗涤可以除去多余的染料和助剂,并改善色牢度。

The results are vibrant and the dyes establish a strong chemical bond with the material, yielding excellent washability.

由此我们知道,染料与材料能形成强烈的化学键,产生优异的可洗性。

 

Disperse dyes

分散染料


Also a well-developed ink chemistry with good jetting properties, disperse dyes are insoluble particles. They are typically available in four-colour sets, with cyan, magenta, yellow and key/black (CMYK), and have been formulated for both transfer-based (i.e. dye sublimation) and direct printing.

还有一种效果非常好的油墨——分散染料,具有良好的喷射性能,它通常可以作为四色组合(青色、品红色、黄色和黑色)使用,一般用于转印(即染色升华)或直接打印。

Disperse dyes for transfer-based sublimation offer relatively easy, low-energy processing, as the inks are simply printed onto paper. A calender roll or heat press initiates sublimation at approximately 204 C (400 F). In a gaseous form, the dye moves into the fibres, where it is trapped as it cools to a solid state.

由于只是将油墨简单地打印在纸上,因此,用于转印升华的分散染料产生的能量较低,压延辊或热压机在大约204℃(400°F)下就可以升华,以气态形式,将染料融合到织物中,然后当它冷却至固态时就被完全吸收了。

Direct application of disperse dyes varies. Low- to medium-energy dyes can be used in combination with heat to initiate sublimation. High-energy dyes are processed with high-temperature steam, which drives the dyes into the fibre for superior lightfastness. In any case, processing is more complex for the transfer method, with pre-treatment required and post-print washing also necessary for some applications.

分散染料的应用是有所不同的。低能染料可遇热进行升华处理,而高能染料利用高温蒸汽进行加工,将染料嵌入织物中,具有出色的耐光性。在任何情况下,对于转印的处理是较为复杂的,需要先进行预处理,并且对于材料也需要洗涤。

Transfer-based disperse dye printing is a growing trend, representing 50 per cent of the digital textile market, according to a 2013 study by Provost Ink Jet Consulting. There have been advances in formulations for industrial printheads, improved colour yields—i.e. more colour from less ink—and lighter and uncoated transfer papers.

根据Provost喷墨公司在2013年的一项研究表面,分散染料应用的增长趋势非常明显,占数字纺织品市场的50%。此外,工业打印头的技术也取得进步,产量得到了很大的提高。

 

Pigments

颜料


Compared to dyes, pigments for textile printing are still in the midst of development and remain challenging to formulate and maintain. Their insoluble particles offer a smaller colour gamut and they may require both fabric pre-treatment and post-print curing with dry heat, but they offer a lower cost of entry.

与染料相比,应用于织物的颜料仍处于新的发展阶段,由于它们的不溶性颗粒只能提供较小的色域,并且需要两种织物进行预处理,再进行热固化,对这种颜料的配置仍然需要进一步改善。虽然相对其他材料的预处理步骤会多一些,但它们的成本却是较低的。

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