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当前位置:首页 > 杂志 >  2018年11月杂志_ 什么是艺术品标识

2018年11月杂志_ 什么是艺术品标识

2018-10-31

In an all-too-common scenario for the sign industry, a client who has been asked repeatedly to submit artwork for a given channel letter project is several days late in providing it, yet requires the original installation deadline to be met without change.
在标识行业有一个非常普遍的情况,客户要求会随时变化反复否定,反复提交一个项目的打样,但是要求不加改变地满足原定安装期限。
While this problem is not necessarily insurmountable, one factor that can torpedo the project schedule arises if the client provides the production file in an unacceptable format, as then it will take time to alter and/or revise the artwork before even starting the fabrication of the sign.
虽然这个问题是可以避免的,但是客户以不符合要求的格式提供制作文件,则会成为破坏项目进度的因素,甚至在开始制作标识之前,改变或修改标识也是需要花费时间的。
Design files can entail many potential issues, but the primary formatting problem for channel letter artwork, typically, is when the client submits a rasterized or bitmap file and assumes it will be acceptable for the production department. While such a file might help the signmaker visualize the client’s concept, it will not be usable for fabrication purposes.
设计文件可能带来许多潜在的问题,但是发光字标识的主要格式问题通常是因客户提交位图文件,并内心假设生产制造没有问题。这样的文件只会有助于满足客户的概念要求,但它实际上根本不能用于生产制造。
For this reason, it is essential to check the artwork is formatted as a vector-based file, instead, upon receipt. Indeed, this step is key in ensuring an accurate job quote for the client, keeping all channel letter projects on schedule, maintaining efficient cash flow and improving business relationships all around.
因此,在接收时,检查发光字是基于矢量的文件是必不可少的。的确,这一步骤对于确保客户准确的工作报价、保持所有渠道项目按时进行、保持有效的现金流和改善各地的业务关系至关重要。

A pixelation problem
像素问题

Rasterized artwork, also known as a bitmap file, is constructed with horizontal and vertical rows of pixels. As such, it can basically be considered a grid of pixels unto itself, where each pixel represents a single component of the overall shape.
光栅化的设计图,也称为位图文件,是由水平和垂直行像素构成的。因此,基本上可以将其视为像素网格,其中每个像素表示整体形状的单个组件。
Unfortunately, when a bitmap file is enlarged, it can result in a jagged and unclear—i.e. ‘pixelated’—appearance for the image. This problem arises once the file has been enlarged past what is often referred to as the ‘pixelation point.’
不幸的是,当位图文件被放大时,它可能导致图像的锯齿状和不清晰,即“像素化”外观。这个问题一旦文件被放大过去,通常被称为“像素化点”。

Some of the most common filetype extensions to keep an eye out for, so as to help identify bitmap files and rasterized artwork as soon 
as possible, include the following:
一些最常见的文件类型扩展需要注意,以便帮助尽快识别位图文件和光栅设计图

尽可能包括以下内容:
.bmp   .psd  .tif   .gif   .jpg

The overall appearance of a bitmap file depends on the image resolution, which is defined as the number of pixels per inch (ppi) or dots per inch (dpi). Pixels are variable in size and may be laid out in a file at 72 ppi, 300 ppi and so forth, indicating pixel density. A higher pixel density typically maintains a higher-quality image. Scanned images are typically in bitmap format, as are line art and full-colour photos.
位图文件的总体外观取决于图像分辨率,图像分辨率定义为每英寸像素数(ppi)或每英寸点数(dpi)。像素的大小可变,可以以72 ppi、300 ppi等排列在一个文件中,表示像素密度。较高的像素密度通常维持更高质量的图像。扫描图像通常是位图格式,如线条艺术和全彩照片。
Raster graphics are perfectly appropriate for certain sign industry applications, including screenprinting and billboards. When a client submits a channel letter design in such a file format, however, production will not be possible, since the equipment involved—such as a computer numerical control (CNC) router or a dedicated channel letter bender—typically cannot read it.
光栅图像完全适用于某些标识行业应用,包括丝网印刷和广告牌。然而,当客户以这种文件格式提交发光字设计时,生产加工是不可能的,因为所涉及的设备——例如计算机数控(CNC)路由器或专用发光字弯折机——通常不能读取它。
Instead, the file will need to be reconfigured in a vector-based format. This may be up to the signmaker or an outside production vendor, depending on the circumstances.
相反,文件将需要以基于矢量的格式重新配置。这可能取决于软件开发商或设备生产商,视情况而定。

The vector advantage
矢量优势



Figure 1: Vector node
图1:矢量节点

Vector software produces artwork files that are mathematically defined by using geometric principles. This is a particularly well-suited formatting protocol for simple shapes, including those used for most sign letters.
矢量软件转化的发光字文件,在数学上定义为几何原理。这是一种特别适合于简单形状的图像处理工具,用于大多数符号,字母等文件。
The aforementioned channel letter production equipment can only read vector-based file data, but the main advantage of vector artwork over bitmap graphics is its scalability. Where a bitmap image may become pixelated and distorted when it is enlarged, a vector-based image can easily be adjusted to a range of different sizes without degrading its original shape.
上述发光字标识制作设备只能读取基于矢量的文件数据,但矢量图相对于位图图像的主要优点是它的可伸缩性。在位图图像放大时可能变成像素化并失真的情况下,矢量图像可以容易地调整到不同大小的范围,而不会降低其原始形状。
This is an important distinction that simplifies both artwork processing and sign production—particularly when a client decides at the last minute to order 305-mm (12-in.) tall instead of 254-mm (10-in.) tall channel letters!
譬如客户决定订购305毫米(12英寸)高,而不是254毫米(10英寸)高的发光字标识时,对于图像的确定就成为一个重要的环节,此注意事项可以大大简化确定流程,并满足生产的需要。
Vector artwork cannot be definitively identified by its filetype extension, so it is important to be careful, but the extension 
矢量发光字图像不能通过它的文件扩展来确定,所以要小心处理。
can still be a helpful first clue. Some common options include the following, which are typically produced in vector editing software:
一些常见的选项包括以下内容,它们通常是在矢量编辑软件中生成的:
·eps
·ai
·sdg
·pdf


Follow your nodes
跟随你的节点

While it is possible, using some design software, to save a raster image into a vector format, this process does not necessarily result in a true vector image. In other words, even once a channel letter artwork file carries a suffix from the above list (i.e. .eps, .ai, .sdg or .pdf), it still may not be usable for production. This is a critically important point to keep in mind when accepting and processing clients’ files.
虽然可以使用一些设计软件将光栅图像保存为矢量格式,但这种处理不一定导出真正的矢量图像。换言之,即使发光字标识文件从上面的列表(即,eps、.a i、.sdg或.pdf)中携带后缀,它仍然可能不能用于生产。在接受和处理客户的文件时,这是一个非常重要的要点。
To discover whether or not a design is a true vector image, one simple method is to open the file in the editing software and check for what are known as vector editing nodes. These will show up as small dots and lines, spread out evenly along the perimeter of each image (see Figure 1).
为了发现设计是否是真正的矢量图像,一种简单的方法是在编辑软件中打开文件并检查所谓的矢量编辑节点。这些将显示为小的点和线,沿着每个图像的周界均匀分布(见图1)。
When a single sign letter is opened within the overall file, for example, if nodes appear evenly all around the letter’s shape, then it is a usable vector file.
例如,当在整个文件中打开单个符号字母时,如果节点均匀地出现在字母形状的周围,那么它是一个可用的矢量文件。
In contrast, when a rasterized file has simply been resaved as a vector image, the nodes will appear too scattered and/or bunched up (see Figure 2). Such an image may be helpful from the standpoint of providing a visualization of what the client is seeking, but it will still need to be converted properly into a true vector-based file for production purposes.
相反,当光栅图像被简单地重新解析为矢量图像时,节点将显得过于分散和/或聚集(参见图2)。从提供客户所寻求内容的可视化的观点来看,这样的图像可能有帮助,但是为了生产目的,仍然需要将其适当地转换为真正的矢量图像。


Comprehensive specs
综合规格

Once the client’s file has been verified as a true vector image, the next step toward a problem-free project is to make sure it contains comprehensive data.
一旦客户文件被验证为真正的矢量图像,那么实现无问题的项目的下一步就是确保它包含全面的数据。

Figyure 2

图2

For channel letter signage, all of the following specifications must be included with the artwork or there will be additional potential for delays:
对于发光字标识,以下所有规格必须包括在产品中,否则将有额外的潜在延迟:
Channel letter type (e.g. front lit or reverse lit).
通道字母类型(例如前照或反向照明)。
Overall sign height.
总标识高度。
Overall sign length.
总的符号长度。
Height of largest letter.
最大字母的高度。
Height of smallest letter.
最小字母的高度。
Face colour(s), if any.
表面颜色(如果有的话)。
Return colour.
返回颜色。
Return depth.
返回深度。
Trim cap colour, if applicable.
装饰帽颜色,如果适用的话。
Letter back material.
字母材料。
Mounting type (e.g. flush, raceway, wireway or backer panel).
安装类型(如冲铣、字母通道、电线或背板)。
Raceway length, if applicable.
通道长度,如果适用的话。
Light-emitting diode (LED) illumination type and/or brand.
发光二极管(LED)照明类型和/或品牌。
Keeping all of these points in mind, it may be beneficial not to supply any production and installation timeline to the customer until after the usable artwork—including all of the above specifications—has been provided to the sign shop. As the list suggests, there are many variables involved in channel letter design and fabrication, any of which can easily throw schedules off if a piece of information is missing.
记住所有这些要点,在向招牌店提供可用的产品(包括所有上述规格)之前,不向客户提供任何生产和安装时间表可能是有益的。如列表所示,在发光字标识的设计和制作中涉及许多变量,如果缺少一条信息,其中任何一个都难按时完工。
So, beyond checking the filetype and addressing the ‘vector versus bitmap’ issue, there is plenty of other information that needs to be readily available with the submitted artwork before the project can proceed at pace.
因此,除了检查文件类型和解决“矢量对位图”问题,在项目可以按进度进行之前,还需要在提交的产品中随时获得大量其他相关信息。

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