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当前位置:首页 > 杂志 > 2018年9月杂志_两用ADA标识的安装注意事项

2018年9月杂志_两用ADA标识的安装注意事项

2018-09-03

We’ve all had to deal with a product advertised as “one size fits all.” Usually we find, when it’s too late to get our money back, that it doesn’t. The same holds true for ADA.

我们都希望能够制作出一劳永逸的产品广告,但是这种做法会导致成本收益的速度降低。这种说法同样适用于ADA标识

When the federal government wrote the very first rules for accessible signs, they figured they would make it easy on everyone by just having one size for room identification signs—one size for people who couldn’t see different colors very well, one size for older people with diminishing   clarity of vision, one size for people who couldn’t see much of anything (maybe a sliver of light).

当联邦政府为无障碍标识制定第一条规定时,他们认为为每个房间制作尺寸相同的可识别标识是一件非常容易的事情。一类尺寸是为了服务那些不能很好分辨颜色的人们;另一类尺寸是为了服务那些视力下降的老年人;还有一类尺寸是为了服务盲人(或是那些对光线并不是十分敏感的人们)。

And then, they threw in that same size for signs to direct people around buildings and to give them information about what they could or could not do in those buildings and about how to use various parts of the buildings.

随后,他们将这些大小相同的标识安装在建筑物中,对来访的人们起到一个引导的作用,并且这些标识还能够提供一些信息,告诉人们在这座建筑物中可以做什么不可以做什么,以及对建筑物中各个部分的功能作出说明。

Of course, we’re not just talking about size, although that is what is most at stake. Sometimes we’re talking about the darkness and lightness of the letters and background, and sometimes it’s about how shiny the surfaces are. Sometimes, too, it’s about where the signs are mounted—high above your head or maybe just a few feet above the floorboards.

尽管尺寸问题是最重要的,但是我们不仅仅谈论这些,有时,我们还会对标识的明暗、背景和表面的光泽度进行探讨。同时,我们还会讨论标识的安装位置——是高于你的头部还是只是位于地板上方的几英尺。

Now that I have you thoroughly confused about the rules for ADA signs, let me unravel it a bit and then give you the good news. There is a solution—it’s legal, and it will help you offer really interesting and unique ADA-compliant signs to your customers.

也许你现在对ADA标识充满了困惑,但是不要担心,我会为你作出解答并告诉你一个好消息。我这里有一个关于ADA标识的解决方案,它在合法的前提下,能够为你和你的客户提供一个充满趣味性和独特的ADA兼容标识的解决方案。

First, let’s talk?about the original set of rules, called ADAAG. They were pretty simple.

首先,让我们从最初的规范制定开始说起,ADA管理准则是非常容易理解的。

You had two choices. Room- and floor-level identification signs all had to be readable by touch, with raised characters and Braille. And they had to do dual duty for those who could see; so the characters had to contrast with the background, and all the surfaces had to be non-glare.

你需要做好两个方面的准备。第一,房间和楼层的识别标识都必须通过触摸凸起字符和盲文来读取;第二,正常视力的普通人也要能够很好的识别标识所传达的信息。因此字符必须与背景形成对比,并且标识表面必须是无眩光的。

The only rule for the Braille was that it had to be “shorthand Braille,” otherwise known as Contracted or Grade 2 Braille. Outside of California, which had its own Braille font, there were no rules for the size of the dots or the spacing between the dots or the Braille cells.

对于盲文的唯一要求是它必须是“速记盲文”,也可以说是缩写盲文或是2级盲文。除了加利福尼亚州拥有一套属于自己的盲文字体规范以外,在盲文标识制作的规则里并没有对盲文字符的大小以及盲文之间的间距作出具体的规范。

As for the letters, here’s where the mix-up came in. Visual-only text was supposed to allow “simple” types of serif fonts—meaning non-decorative serif fonts. Tactile text was supposed to be sans serif. But somehow, some of the rules got switched. The “simple serif” was born, and thousands of unreadable tactile signs were the result.

字体的设计会对诸多元素进行结合。可视化的文字设计通常要求“简单”的衬线字体,即非装饰性衬线字体,可触式的文字设计要求无衬线字体。但是现在,一些规则发生了变化。“简单衬线”字体的出现,使得大量的可触式标识变得更加复杂。

On top of that, the strict rules about stroke widths and character widths meant tactile characters got added to visual characters instead, and other than the requirement for ALL CAPS, most of the important rules for tactile characters were lost.

另外,关于笔划宽度和字符宽度的严格规定,意味着当触觉字符和视觉字符结合使用时,除了全部大写的标准被保留之外,大多数触觉字符的重要规则都丢失了。

Tactile character size was 5/8-inch minimum and two inches maximum. The only size mentioned for visual characters was a three-inch minimum for signs mounted eighty inches above the floor.

触觉字符的尺寸最小为5/8英寸,最大为2英寸。对于视觉字符来说,唯一的尺寸要求是在距离地面80英寸的位置安装标识时,其尺寸最小为3英寸。

But the result was that architects specified every single sign with 5/8-inch-high characters unless it was 80 inches above the floor, and then all the letters were three inches high—a ridiculous jump from 5/8 to three inches! But most signs were 5/8 inches. How many of you can read a directional sign with 5/8-inch-high characters across a room?

建筑师最终将除高出地面80英寸以外的单个触觉字符设置为5/8英寸高,其他所有的可视化字符被设置为3英寸高,虽然这看起来是一个非常大的差距,但如果大多数标识尺寸都是5/8英寸时,你们当中有多少人可以在房间内阅读5/8英寸高的导向标识牌?

Way back in about 1996, President Bill Clinton convened a committee to update the ADA Standards—and they obviously needed it. Those of us on the working subcommittees set about correcting mistakes and adding some of the things that had been overlooked. We got rid of “simple serifs” for tactile characters and added in stroke and character width requirements.

早在1996年,克林顿总统召集了一个委员会来更新ADA标识的准则规范——这个规范制定得非常及时。之后我们这些工作小组委员会的成员着手纠正了相关的错误并增加一些被忽视的条款,我们删除了触觉字符的“简单衬线”规定,并添加了笔画和字符宽度的要求。

However we were afraid to change too much. We thought it might cause a mutiny, since people were just getting used to the rules.

当然,我们也害怕改变太多而引起不必要的混乱,因为人们已经习惯了之前的规则。

Everything was ready to go, and public hearings and comments were all in place. However the 2000 election changed the plans, and the new standards languished until 2012. The new rules were finally approved and made legal during the Obama administration.

一切都准备就绪,公开听证会和评委都已到位。然而,2000年的选举改变了计划,制定的新标准一直延用到了2012年。之后,新的规获得批准,并在奥巴马政府期间合法化。

As we talked with many legally blind people, it became clear that they fell into two distinct groups—and those two groups needed completely different signs.

当我们在与许多盲人进行交谈时,可以发现他们很明显地分成了两个不同的群体,这两个群体在需求方面展现了完全不一样的特点。

One group couldn’t see much at all, and they had to read by touch. A small percentage could read Braille, so the rest needed to have tactile characters that were really easy to read. What they didn’t need was contrast or non-glare surfaces, since those only affect people who can see.

一组群体体现在只能通过触摸来阅读,他们完全看不见。另一少部分人可以阅读盲文,因此他们需要方便阅读的触觉文字。他们对于标识的对比度和是否是非反光表面不是特别在意,因为这些因素只会对视力正常的人们有所影响。

We noticed that they preferred to read rounded or beveled and very thin character strokes. Renowned designer Roger Whitehouse, who was designing a system for the Lighthouse for the Blind in New York City, described the preferred fonts as “wire hanger shapes.” They needed a lot of space between letters, as well, and they liked fairly small-sized characters, so they could feel them all at once (just like Braille) rather than trace them. Those letters weren’t very pretty, so Roger asked himself, “Did sighted people need to see them?

我们注意到他们很喜欢阅读圆形、斜面或是非常薄的字符笔划。著名设计师罗杰·怀特豪斯正在为纽约市的盲人灯塔设计一个标识系统,他首选的字体在字与字之间需要比较大的空间,他也喜欢小尺寸的字体,这样就可以使人们在第一时间感受到它们(就像盲文一样)。但是这些字体不是那么的美观,因此罗杰问自己:“视力正常的人们是否需要看到它们?”

With that question, the dual-purpose sign was born!

怀揣着这样的问题,两用标识应运而生!

Roger designed the new signs for the Lighthouse with two parts. The tactile section was hidden in a decorative part of the sign and the visual part used much larger, bolder characters. The most important thing was that they had really high contrast with their backgrounds and were non-glare.

罗杰为灯塔设计的新标识分为两个部分。触觉字符被隐藏在了标识的装饰部分中,而可视化部分则使用更大更明显的字体。最重要的是,这些字体与背景的对比度很高,并且不会有反光的产生。

Besides that, the signs could use upper and lower case, and non-decorative serif styles. That made them easier for more visual users to read—and often more attractive, to boot.

除此之外,标识的制作还可以使用大小写和非装饰性衬线字体。这使得大多数视觉用户能够更容易阅读,并且能够使标识更具有吸引力。

You might think that the two parts all have to be on one sign blank. However, the rule is clear. The characters can be on one sign blank or separated on two signs.

你也许会认为这两个部分都必须被设计在标识的同一处空白区域中,但是,ADA准则明确表示,触觉字体和可视化字体必须分开设计。

It’s too bad that the government speak used for the ADA Standards is pretty opaque. If you don’t already know this new rule, you might never discover it.

政府目前对于ADA标识制作准则还没有一个非常明确的规定。如果你还不知道此项新规则,有可能永远不会发现它。

The ANSI Standards are actually written so that it is much easier to understand. However if you can unravel the legalese, you’ll see that visual characters have specific rules for font style and character and stroke width as well as minimum character heights, but more importantly, they require high contrast between the characters and their backgrounds, along with non-glare finishes.

美国国家标准学会制定的成文标准就非常容易理解,如果你对法律术语有所了解,你会发现可视化字体对于字体样式、字符和笔触宽度以及最小的字符高度均有规定,但更重要的是,字体和背景之间应该形成明显的对比,以及减少标识表面反光情况的出现。

On the other hand, tactile characters have even more stringent rules for fonts and sizes but no rules at all for contrast or glare. It means repeating the same message twice, but one of those messages can do dual duty as a decorative part of the sign or it can be virtually hidden by having the sign background match the wall covering.

另一方面,触觉字体对字体样式和字体大小有着更为严格的规定,但对于对比度或反光问题没有任何规定。这意味着同一个标识将会对所传达的信息重复两次,但其中一种传达信息的字符既可以作为标识的装饰部分,也可以在标识背景与墙面的相互协调下达到一个完美的隐藏。

Creative sign designers should be having a field day with this rule, and owners who want to solve problems or save money may also find a solution here.

创意设计师可以专门安排一天用来学习这些规则,业主也可以通过学习这些知识来解决问题或是达到省钱的目的。

For instance, the designer for a very high-end hotel with individual hideaways on paths wending through the grounds wanted visual signs mounted on rustic posts, planted among flowers at each entrance. The doors had glass side-lights. The matching tactile room numbers with Braille are thermoformed on clear acrylic, which is treated to look like the polished glass of the side-lights, and crystal-clear adhesive means the sign looks like part of the glass.

举例来说,设计师在为通向高端酒店的小路上设计隐藏的视觉标识时,可以在入口处种植一些花朵,并在玻璃门的一侧安装照明光源,房间号码牌使用透明亚克力材料制成,在门牌上应用的盲文触觉标识是使用热成型的工艺制作而成的,在灯光照明的映衬下拥有和抛光玻璃非常相似的视觉效果,透明粘合剂的使用能够使标识和玻璃门融为一体。

On the other end of the economic spectrum, let’s say a school already has easy-to-read visual numbers stenciled on each classroom door. A small plaque with raised numbers and Braille can be painted all one color to match the wall and mounted adjacent to the door. A hotel with high-contrast brass numerals on the doors just needs to add an unobtrusive tactile sign on the wall.

另一方面,学校可以在每个教室的门上都安装易读的视觉数字,在一个小门牌上设计出数字和盲文标识,涂上同一种颜色与墙壁颜色相匹配,并将这个门牌安装在门的附近。对于酒店门边已有的高对比度的黄铜数字标识,只需要在墙上添加一个不显眼的触觉标识即可。

Not only are people with disabilities not being short-changed by these signs, but it means far more people with vision-based disabilities can actually read the signs. It also means that we no longer have to accept white-on-blue uppercase Helvetica as a kind of de facto ADA standard.

标识的改变并没有对残疾人造成影响,并且越来越多具有视觉障碍的人也能够开始阅读这些标识所传达的信息。这也意味着,我们不再需要使用白蓝相间的大写Helvetica字体作为ADA规定的字体标准。

How can we make our public buildings more usable by the greatest number of people of all ages and abilities? We think the answer lies in many more beautiful two-part, dual-purpose signs.

我们如何才能让我们的公共建筑更容易被各种年龄和职业的人所使用?我们认为答案在于制造更多美观的两用ADA标识

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